Python Install Libraries On Mac 'LINK'
For corporate and other institutional users, be aware that manyorganisations have their own policies around using and contributing toopen source software. Please take such policies into account when makinguse of the distribution and installation tools provided with Python.
Python Install Libraries On Mac
On Linux systems, a Python installation will typically be included as partof the distribution. Installing into this Python installation requiresroot access to the system, and may interfere with the operation of thesystem package manager and other components of the system if a componentis unexpectedly upgraded using pip.
With the introduction of support for the binary wheel format, and theability to publish wheels for at least Windows and macOS through thePython Package Index, this problem is expected to diminish over time,as users are more regularly able to install pre-built extensions ratherthan needing to build them themselves.
Step 1: As the first step, you should check that you have a working Python with pip installed. This can be done by running the following commands and the output will be similar to like this:
Due to the way most Linux distributions are handling the Python 3migration, Linux users using the system Python without creating a virtualenvironment first should replace the python command in this tutorialwith python3 and the python -m pip command with python3 -m pip --user. Do notrun any of the commands in this tutorial with sudo: if you get apermissions error, come back to the section on creating virtual environments,set one up, and then continue with the tutorial as written.
virtualenv needs to be installed separately, but supports Python 2.7+and Python 3.3+, and pip, setuptools and wheel arealways installed into created virtual environments by default (regardless ofPython version).
The most common usage of pip is to install from the Python PackageIndex using a requirement specifier. Generally speaking, a requirement specifier iscomposed of a project name followed by an optional version specifier. PEP 440 contains a fullspecificationof the currently supported specifiers. Below are some examples.
To install from other data sources (for example Amazon S3 storage) you cancreate a helper application that presents the data in a PEP 503 compliantindex format, and use the --extra-index-url flag to direct pip to usethat index.
Pip is a package management system used for installing and managing Python software packages and libraries. The software and libraries are stored in a repository called the Python Package Index (PyPI).
The easy_install method features a Python module bundled with setuptools for managing Python packages. easy_install was the default Python package manager before pip.
Warning: easy_install has been deprecated and may result in a broken installation. The recommended method to use is get-pip.py or ensurepip. Also, do not use this command for a homebrew-based Python installation and prevent installing pip with root credentials for the wrong Python.
If you want to install Pip on a different system, read our tutorials to learn how to Install pip on Windows, Install pip on CentOS 7, Install pip on CentOS 8, Install pip on Debian 9, or Install pip on Ubuntu.
I'm starting to learn python and loving it. I work on a Mac mainly as well as Linux. I'm finding that on Linux (Ubuntu 9.04 mostly) when I install a python module using apt-get it works fine. I can import it with no trouble.
On the Mac, I'm used to using Macports to install all the Unixy stuff. However, I'm finding that most of the python modules I install with it are not being seen by python. I've spent some time playing around with PATH settings and using python_select . Nothing has really worked and at this point I'm not really understanding, instead I'm just poking around.
The most popular way to manage python packages (if you're not using your system package manager) is to use setuptools and easy_install. It is probably already installed on your system. Use it like this:
A better option is pip, which is gaining traction, as it attempts to fix a lot of the problems associated with easy_install. Pip uses the same package repository as easy_install, it just works better. Really the only time use need to use easy_install is for this command:
At some point you will probably want to learn a bit about virtualenv. If you do a lot of python development on projects with conflicting package requirements, virtualenv is a godsend. It will allow you to have completely different versions of various packages, and switch between them easily depending your needs.
MacPorts is only portable within Mac, but with easy_install or pip you will learn how to setup your environment in any platform (Win/Mac/Linux/Bsd...). Furthermore it will always be more up to date and with more packages
I personally let MacPorts handle my Python modules to keep everything updated. Like any other high level package manager (ie: apt-get) it is much better for the heavy lifting of modules with lots of binary dependencies. There is no way I would build my Qt bindings (PySide) with easy_install or pip. Qt is huge and takes a lot to compile. As soon as you want a Python package that needs a library used by non Python programs, try to avoid easy_install or pip
Now notice that I favor pip over easy_install. There is a good reason you should avoid setuptools and easy_install. Here is a good explanation and I try to keep away from them. One very useful feature of pip is giving you a list of all the modules (along their versions) that you installed with MacPorts, easy_install and pip itself:
If you are a developer keep an eye on virtualenv for controlling different setups and combinations of module versions. Other answers mention it already, what is not mentioned so far is the Tox module, a tool for testing that your package installs correctly with different Python versions.
If you go for MacPorts be aware that multiple versions of the same package are not selected anymore like the old Debian style with an extra python_select package (it is still there for compatibility). Now you have the select command to choose which Python version will be used (you can even select the Apple installed ones):
I use MacPorts to install Python and any third-party modules tracked by MacPorts into /opt/local, and I install any manually installed modules (those not in the MacPorts repository) into /usr/local, and this has never caused any problems. I think you may be confused as to the use of certain MacPorts scripts and environment variables.
MacPorts python_select is used to select the "current" version of Python, but it has nothing to do with modules. This allows you to, e.g., install both Python 2.5 and Python 2.6 using MacPorts, and switch between installs.
The $PATH environment variables does not affect what Python modules are loaded. $PYTHONPATH is what you are looking for. $PYTHONPATH should point to directories containing Python modules you want to load. In my case, my $PYTHONPATH variable contains /usr/local/lib/python26/site-packages. If you use MacPorts' Python, it sets up the other proper directories for you, so you only need to add additional paths to $PYTHONPATH. But again, $PATH isn't used at all when Python searches for modules you have installed.
There's nothing wrong with using a MacPorts Python installation. If you are installing python modules from MacPorts but then not seeing them, that likely means you are not invoking the MacPorts python you installed to. In a terminal shell, you can use absolute paths to invoke the various Pythons that may be installed. For example:
To get the right python by default requires ensuring your shell $PATH is set properly to ensure that the right executable is found first. Another solution is to define shell aliases to the various pythons.
A python.org (MacPython) installation is fine, too, as others have suggested. easy_install can help but, again, because each Python instance may have its own easy_install command, make sure you are invoking the right easy_install.
If you use Python from MacPorts, it has it's own easy_install located at: /opt/local/bin/easy_install-2.6 (for py26, that is). It's not the same one as simply calling easy_install directly, even if you used python_select to change your default python command.
Regarding which python version to use, Mac OS usually ships an old version of python. It's a good idea to upgrade to a newer version. You can download a .dmg from . If you do that, remember to update the path. You can find the exact commands here -3-0-on-mac-os-x-alongside-2-6-2-5-etc-/
This guide discusses how to install packages using pip anda virtual environment manager: either venv for Python 3 or virtualenvfor Python 2. These are the lowest-level tools for managing Pythonpackages and are recommended if higher-level tools do not suit your needs.
If you are using Python 3.3 or newer, the venv module isthe preferred way to create and manage virtual environments.venv is included in the Python standard library and requires no additional installation.If you are using venv, you may skip this section.
virtualenv is used to manage Python packages for different projects.Using virtualenv allows you to avoid installing Python packages globallywhich could break system tools or other projects. You can install virtualenvusing pip.
This tutorial is not intended to teach you Python itself. Once you are familiar with the basics of VS Code, you can then follow any of the programming tutorials on python.org within the context of VS Code for an introduction to the language.
Next, install the Python extension for VS Code from the Visual Studio Marketplace. For additional details on installing extensions, see Extension Marketplace. The Python extension is named Python and it's published by Microsoft.